ASDs account for 7% of all congenital heart defects. The most common ADS is a secundum defect versus defects located in the septum primum, sinus venosus defects, or unroofed coronary sinus.
Transcatheter secundum ASD Closure is indicated in patients with hemodynamically significant ASD with suitable anatomic features (Level of Evidence :B).
VSDs account for =20% of all forms of CHD. The ventricular septum can be divided into 4 regions: Membranous, inlet, trabecular, and outlet. VSDs can be single in any of the mentioned regions or multiple ("Swiss Cheese") in the muscular part of the septum.
It is reasonable for infants who weigh >= 5 Kg, children, and adolescents with hemodynamically significant (left ventricular or left atrial volume overload or pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow ratio >=2:1) MVSD to undergo percutaneous VSD device closure (Level of Evidence:B)
Transcatheter occlusion of PDAs with a variety of devices and innovative techniques has been reported. Transcatheter PDA occlusion is indicated for the treatment of a moderate-sized or large PDA with left-to-right shunt that results in any of the following: Congestive heart failure, failure to thrive, pulmonary overcirculation.